The tonsils are an important component of the രോഗപ്രതിരോധ. They perform numerous tasks, but can also be limited in their function due to various diseases. വീക്കം and enlargement of the palatine tonsils occur frequently, especially in children.
പാലറ്റൈൻ ടോൺസിലുകൾ എന്താണ്?
Four different tonsils exist in the human organism, which are differentiated primarily with regard to their location. Thereby, the tonsils belong to the lymphatic tissue. Palatine tonsils occur on both sides in the back of the പല്ലിലെ പോട്. In contrast, humans have only one pharyngeal and lingual tonsil. At the same time, the palatine tonsils in particular are responsible for immune defense, which may make removing them more difficult than surgery on the pharyngeal tonsil. While the palatine tonsils are often not noticed in everyday life, they manifest themselves especially during illnesses. On the one hand, inflammations are often associated with വേദന, and on the other hand, they can be palpated externally in their swollen form, which is normally not possible. വീക്കം കാരണമായി ബാക്ടീരിയ is particularly common in Germany in the area of the palatine tonsils.
The various tonsils in the human body together constitute Waldeyer’s ring. While they are differentiated with respect to their location, no variations can be found in anatomy and structure. The palatine tonsils belong to the lymphatic tissue. They are separated from their surroundings by a ബന്ധം ടിഷ്യു capsule. Multilayered squamous എപിത്തീലിയം forms the surface of the palatine tonsils. Indentations, so-called crypts, provide for an enlargement of the surface. This is almost continuously covered with the indentations. If the surface were to be spread out, the result would be an area of 300 square centimeters. Certain immune defense cells produce lymphoid follicles, which can be found inside the palatine tonsil. Right next to the palatine tonsils there are glands. Their work relates to preventing fluids from entering and accumulating in the crypts. At the same time, the glands flush the palatine tonsils, helping them to function better.
The palatine tonsils form part of the defense system in the human organism. Together with the other tonsils, ലിംഫ് നോഡുകൾ, പ്ലീഹ, മജ്ജ ഒപ്പം തൈമസ്, they defend the body from unwanted രോഗകാരികൾ അതുപോലെ ബാക്ടീരിയ that would otherwise cause disease. Only when the രോഗപ്രതിരോധ fails in its fight against the രോഗകാരികൾ do various clinical pictures and symptoms appear. The palatine tonsils play an important role in this process. As soon as വൈറസുകൾ or ബാക്ടീരിയ enter the tonsils, the defense against the existing invaders begins. The pathway is via the ലിംഫ് എന്ന ലിംഫ് നോഡുകൾ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ വഴി രക്തം. If the palatine tonsils now recognize a danger from രോഗകാരികൾ, they resort to the so-called immune response. As part of this process, the B and ടി ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾ within the tonsils produce ആൻറിബോഡികൾ. The B and ടി ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾ are relatives of the white രക്തം cells. They are capable of producing specific ആൻറിബോഡികൾ, which in turn act against pathogens. However, before the production of ആൻറിബോഡികൾ begins, the invaders must be recognized. Infected cells are killed in order to reconstruct ആരോഗ്യം. In order for the system to be effective, it is important that the pathogens come into contact with a large area of the palatine tonsils. That is why the indentations of the surface prove to be helpful. Thus, the task of the palatine tonsils is to remove pathogens. Through the complex system of several tonsils, the ingested food and air can be checked. If there are bacteria or വൈറസുകൾ in it, the work of the tonsils begins. Accordingly, pathogens are not always necessarily noticed by physical complaints. Because the work of the tonsils was underestimated for a long time, in the past even the preventive removal of the palatine tonsils occurred. In the meantime, these are removed under normal circumstances only if the person concerned is at least 6 years old. From this point on, no serious consequences could be found after the removal of the palatine tonsils.
The most common disease affecting palatine tonsils is ടോൺസിലൈറ്റിസ്. Bacteria especially often invade the tonsils and cause discomfort.In many cases, these are group A സ്ട്രെപ്റ്റോകോക്കി. Much less frequently, pneumococci, ഹീമോഫിലസ് ഇൻഫ്ലുവൻസ ഒപ്പം സ്റ്റാഫൈലോകോക്കി are to blame for the symptoms. Children and adolescents are more often affected by ടോൺസിലൈറ്റിസ് than adults. Often such ജലനം അനുഗമിക്കുന്നു തൊണ്ടവേദന and discomfort during swallowing. The palatine tonsils show a reddish discoloration, which is accompanied by white and purulent spots as it progresses. Often, the palatine tonsils also swell, allowing them to be palpated from the outside. In this case, confusion with swollen ലിംഫ് nodes can be ruled out. ടോൺസിലൈറ്റിസ് is not a serious threat, treatment with ബയോട്ടിക്കുകൾ, വേദന and rinses usually ensures that the infection subsides within a few days. However, a clear distinction must be drawn here from എപ്പ്റ്റെയിൻ ബാർ വൈറസ് and mononucleosis. These diseases also have the potential to trigger inflammation in the area of the palatine tonsils. If food debris, dead cells, and bacteria get into the indentations, tonsil stones may form under certain circumstances. Tonsil stones are often perceived as unpleasant because, among other things, they can also be responsible for strong മോശം ശ്വാസം. To avoid them, the throat should be carefully rinsed with വെള്ളം ഒരു ഉപയോഗിച്ച് മൗത്ത് വാഷ്. Susceptible individuals should gargle some liquid regularly.
സാധാരണവും സാധാരണവുമായ രോഗങ്ങൾ
- ആഞ്ചിന ടോൺസിലാരിസ്
- സ്കാർലറ്റ് പനി
- Pfeiffer ന്റെ ഗ്രന്ഥി പനി
- ക്രോണിക് ടോൺസിലൈറ്റിസ്